Factors governing phytoplankton community in the Can Gio mangrove biosphere reserve, Vietnam

Thanh-Luu Pham


This paper covers spatial and temporal variations in phytoplankton communities and physico-chemical water properties in the Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve (CGMBR), Vietnam based on field measurement conducted in dry and wet seasons of 2010. Phytoplankton samples and water parameter data were collected from nine stations in the CGMBR. A total of 86 species were recorded with clear dominance of Bacillariophyceae, which formed above 90% of the total phytoplankton abundance with average of 48,000 cell/l in dry season and 35,000 cell/l in wet season. Although Chaetoceros and Coscinodiscus were the two most diverse genera, Skeletonema showed high abundance during the studied period. Among the ten environmental parameters tested in this study, salinity, turbidity, nitrate, ammonium and silicon dioxide were found to be significantly different between seasons. On the other hand, no significant difference was found between stations for the studied physico-chemical parameters. Results of CCA indicated that the phytoplankton assemblage in CGMBR was influenced by salinity, turbidity, nitrate, ammonium and phosphate concentration. This is the first study simultaneously investigating the phytoplankton communities and their environment in this area and it is essential to set up the baseline of future studies.


Phytoplankton, composition, abundance, Can Gio mangrove, environmental variable.

Full Text:



Reynolds, C. S., 2006. The ecology of phytoplankton. Cambridge University Press. 550 p.

Naddafi, R., Pettersson, K., and Eklöv, P., 2007. The effect of seasonal variation in selective feeding by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on phytoplankton community composition. Freshwater Biology, 52(5), 823–842.

Costa, L. S., Huszar, V. L. M., and Ovalle, A. R., 2009. Phytoplankton functional groups in a tropical estuary: hydrological control and nutrient limitation. Estuaries and Coasts, 32(3), 508–521.

Nassar, M. Z., El-Din, N. G. S., and Gharib, S. M., 2015. Phytoplankton variability in relation to some environmental factors in the eastern coast of Suez Gulf, Egypt. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(10), 648 –655.

Ward, B. A., Dutkiewicz, S., and Follows, M. J., 2013. Modelling spatial and temporal patterns in size-structured marine plankton communities: top-down and bottom–up controls. Journal of Plankton Research, 36(1), 31–47.

Nche-Fambo, F. A., Scharler, U. M., and Tirok, K., 2015. Resilience of estuarine phytoplankton and their temporal variability along salinity gradients during drought and hypersalinity. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 158, 40–52.

Bussi, G., Whitehead, P. G., Bowes, M. J., Read, D. S., Prudhomme, C., and Dadson, S. J., 2016. Impacts of climate change, land-use change and phosphorus reduction on phytoplankton in the River Thames (UK). Science of the Total Environment, 572, 1507–1519.

George, B., Kumar, J. N., and Kumar, R. N., 2012. Study on the influence of hydro-chemical parameters on phytoplankton distribution along Tapi estuarine area of Gulf of Khambhat, India. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 38(3), 157–170.

Gao, X., and Song, J., 2005. Phytoplankton distributions and their relationship with the environment in the Changjiang Estuary, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50(3), 327–335.

Aktan, Y., Tüfekçi, V., Tüfekçi, H., and Aykulu, G., 2005. Distribution patterns, biomass estimates and diversity of phytoplankton in Izmit Bay (Turkey). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 64(2–3), 372–384.

Thangaradjou, T., Sethubathi, G. V., Raja, S., Poornima, D., Shanthi, R., Balasubramanian, T., Babu, K. N., and Shukla, A. K., 2012. Influence of environmental variables on phytoplankton floristic pattern along the shallow coasts of southwest Bay of Bengal. Algal Research, 1(2), 143–154.

Ralston, D. K., Keafer, B. A., Brosnahan, M. L., and Anderson, D. M., 2014. Temperature dependence of an estuarine harmful algal bloom: Resolving interannual variability in bloom dynamics using a degree‐day approach. Limnology and Oceanography, 59(4), 1112–1126.

Ralston, D. K., Keafer, B. A., Brosnahan, M. L., and Anderson, D. M., 2014. Temperature dependence of an estuarine harmful algal bloom: Resolving interannual variability in bloom dynamics using a degree‐day approach. Limnology and Oceanography, 59(4), 1112–1126.

Alongi, D. M., 2002. Present state and future of the world's mangrove forests. Environmental Conservation, 29(3), 331–349.

Kuenzer, C., and Tuan, V. Q., 2013. Assessing the ecosystem services value of Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve: combining earth-observation-and household-survey-based analyses. Applied Geography, 45, 167–184.

McDonough, S., Gallardo, W., Berg, H., Trai, N. V., and Yen, N. Q., 2014. Wetland ecosystem service values and shrimp aquaculture relationships in Can Gio, Vietnam. Ecological indicators, 46, 201–213.

Van Loon, A. F., Dijksma, R., and Van Mensvoort, M. E. F., 2007. Hydrological classification in mangrove areas: a case study in Can Gio, Vietnam. Aquatic Botany, 87(1), 80–82.

Minh, T. L. T., Phuoc, D. N., Quoc, T. D., Ngo, H. H., and Lan, C. D. H., 2016. Presence of e-EDCs in surface water and effluents of pollution sources in Sai Gon and Dong Nai river basin. Sustainable Environment Research, 26(1), 20–27.

APHA (American Public Health Association), 2005. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 21st Edition, Washington DC. 2567 p.

Shirota, A., 1966. The plankton of South Viet-Nam: fresh water and marine plankton. Overseas Technical Cooperation Agency. 489 p.

Krammer, K., and Lange-Bertalot, H. 1991. Bacillariophyceae. 3. Teil: Centrales, Fragilariaceae, Eunotiaceae. in Ettl, H., Gerloff, J., Heynig, H. and Mollenhauer, D. (eds) Süsswasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Band 2/3. Gustav Fischer Verlag: Stuttgart, Jena. 576 p.

Fukuyo, Y., 1990. Red tide organisms in Japan: an illustrated taxonomic guide. Uchida Rokakuho.

Trương Ngọc An, 1993. Phân loại tảo silic phù du biển Việt Nam. Nxb. Khoa học và Kỹ thuật, Hà Nội. 315 tr.

Tomas, C. R. (Ed.), 1997. Identifying marine phytoplankton. Elsevier. 875 p.

Larsen, J., and Nguyen, N. L., 2004. Potentially toxic microalgae of Vietnamese waters. Opera Botanica, 140, 5–216.

Tôn Thất Pháp, 2009. Đa dạng sinh học ở Phá Tam Giang-Cầu Hai tỉnh Thừa Thiên Huế. Nxb. Đại học Huế, 214 p.

Lund, J. W. G., Kipling, C., and Le Cren, E. D., 1958. The inverted microscope method of estimating algal numbers and the statistical basis of estimations by counting. Hydrobiologia, 11(2), 143–170.

Guiry, M. D., and Guiry, G. M., 2016. AlgaeBase version 4.2 World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.〈http://www.algaebase.org〉(searched on 18 Sep 2016).

Lepš, J., and Šmilauer, P., 2003. Multivariate analysis of ecological data using CANOCO. Cambridge University Press. 283 p.

Xuan, Q. N., Vanreusel, A., Thanh, N. V., and Smol, N., 2007. Biodiversity of meiofauna in the intertidal Khe Nhan mudflat, Can Gio mangrove forest, Vietnam with special emphasis on free living nematodes. Ocean Science Journal, 42(3), 135–152.

Nguyễn Thị Gia Hằng, Trần Triết, Nguyễn Thanh Tùng, 2009. Quần xã khuê tảo bám trong hệ sinh thái rừng ngập mặn tại khu dự trữ sinh quyển Cần Giờ, thành phố Hồ Chí Minh. Tạp chí Phát triển Khoa học và Công nghệ, 12(7), 72–78.

Rajkumar, M., Perumal, P., Prabu, V. A., Perumal, N. V., and Rajasekar, K. T., 2009. Phytoplankton diversity in pichavaram mangrove waters from south-east coast of India. Journal of Environmental Biology, 30(4), 489–498.

Canini, N. D., Metillo, E. B., and Azanza, R. V., 2013. Monsoon-influenced phytoplankton community structure in a Philippine mangrove estuary. Tropical Ecology, 54(3), 331–343.

Brogueira, M. J., do Rosário Oliveira, M., and Cabeçadas, G., 2007. Phytoplankton community structure defined by key environmental variables in Tagus estuary, Portugal. Marine Environmental Research, 64(5), 616–628.

Lu, Z., and Gan, J., 2015. Controls of seasonal variability of phytoplankton blooms in the Pearl River Estuary. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 117, 86–96.

Suthers, I., Rissik, D., and Richardson, A. (Eds.), 2019. Plankton: A guide to their ecology and monitoring for water quality. CSIRO publishing, 273 p.

Arumugam, S., Sigamani, S., Samikannu, M., and Perumal, M., 2016. Assemblages of phytoplankton diversity in different zonation of Muthupet mangroves. Regional Studies in Marine Science, 3, 234–241.

Schwarzer, K., Thanh, N. C., and Ricklefs, K., 2016. Sediment re-deposition in the mangrove environment of Can Gio, Saigon river estuary (Vietnam). Journal of Coastal Research, 75(sp1), 138–143.

Davidson, K., Gowen, R. J., Harrison, P. J., Fleming, L. E., Hoagland, P., and Moschonas, G., 2014. Anthropogenic nutrients and harmful algae in coastal waters. Journal of Environmental Management, 146, 206–216.

Huang, L., Jian, W., Song, X., Huang, X., Liu, S., Qian, P., Yin, K., and Wu, M., 2004. Species diversity and distribution for phytoplankton of the Pearl River estuary during rainy and dry seasons. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49(7–8), 588–596.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15625/1859-3097/19/1/9179 Display counter: Abstract : 254 views. PDF : 32 views.

Editorial Office:

Vietnam Journal of Marine Science and Technology

1st Floor, A16 Building, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Street, Cau Giay District, Hanoi, Vietnam

Tel: (+84) 024 3791 7411

E-mail: jmst@vjs.ac.vn