Removal of chromium from wastewater using paper waste sludge-derived hyrdrochar modified by naoh

Lan Huong Nguyen, Huu Tap Van, Quang Trung Nguyen, Thu Huong Nguyen, Thi Bich Lien Nguyen, Thi Phuong Thuy Pham, Thai Hoang Le, Manh Ha Bui, Viet The Ho, Ordanza Hanna Joy Tilpo, Marcaida Gio Serafin Ivan Jimenez, Tra Mai Ngo


In this work, paper waste sludge (PWS) collected from the primary settling tank of the paper wastewater treatment plant was utilized to generate hydrochar as a low-cost adsorbent for removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. The characteristics of paper waste sludge hydrochar (PWSH) and the effects of adsorption conditions of Cr(VI) onto PWSH, including solution pH (3-9), contact time (5-240 min), initial Cr(VI) concentration (10-80 mg/L) and the adsorbent dose of 1 g/L at room temperature (25±2°C) were investigated. Adsorption isotherm and kinetics were also predicted in this work. The results indicate that the maximum adsorption capacity achieved 11.89 mg/g at 120 min of contact time, pH 3, and initial Cr(VI) concentration of 60 mg/L. The adsorption isotherm was reflected the best by the Langmuir model (R2 of 0.9968). Whereas, the adsorption kinetic also indicates that the pseudo-second-order model predicted the best for Cr(VI) adsorption process with a R2 of 0.9469. The mechanism of Cr(VI) adsorption process onto PWSH was chemical sorption through electrostatic interaction and ion exchange.


Chromium, hydrochar, adsorption, paper waste sludge, ion exchange


Akram M., Bhatti H. N., Iqbal M., Noreen S., Sadaf S., 2017. Biocomposite efficiency for Cr(VI) adsorption: Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamics studies. J. Envi. Chem. Engin., 5(1), 400-411.

Ali A., Saeed K., Mabood F., 2016. Removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous medium using chemically modified banana peels as efficient low-cost adsorbent. Alexandria Engin. J., 55(3), 2933-2942.

Fang J., Gao B., Mosa A., Zhan L., 2017. Chemical activation of hickory and peanut hull hydrochars for removal of lead and methylene blue from aqueous solutions. Chem. Specia. Bioavai., 29(1), 197-204.

Garg U.K., Kaur M.P., Garg V.K., Sud D., 2007. Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by agricultural waste biomass. J. Haza. Mater., 140(1-2), 60-68.

Gupta A., Balomajumder C., 2015. Simultaneous adsorption of Cr(VI) and phenol onto tea waste biomass from binary mixture: Multicomponent adsorption, thermodynamic and kinetic study. J. Envi. Chem. Engin., 3(2), 785-796.

Hoang L.P., Nguyen T.M. P., Van H.T., Hoang T.K.D., Vu X.H., Nguyen T.V., Ca N.X., 2020. Cr(VI) Removal from Aqueous Solution Using a Magnetite Snail Shell. Water, Air. Soil Poll., 231(1), 1-13.

Hoang L.P., Van H.T., Nguyen L.H., Mac D.H., Vu T.T., Ha L.T., Nguyen X.C., 2019. Removal of Cr(vi) from aqueous solution using magnetic modified biochar derived from raw corncob. New J. Chem., 43(47), 18663-18672.

Huang Z. Nan, Wang X. Ling, Yang D. Suo., 2015. Adsorption of Cr(VI) in wastewater using magnetic multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Wat. Sci. Engin., 8(3), 226-232.

Iyer A., Pensini E., Singh A., 2019. Removal of hexavalent chromium from water using hydrochar obtained with different types of feedstock. Canad. J. Civil Engin,

Kera N.H., Bhaumik M., Pillay K., Sinha Ray S., Maity A., 2017. Selective removal of toxic Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by adsorption combined with reduction at a magnetic nanocomposite surface. J. Colloid. Interf. Sci., 503, 214-228

Khushk S., Zhang L., Pirzada A.M., Irfan M., Li A., 2019. Cr(VI) heavy metal adsorption from aqueous solution by KOH treated hydrochar derived from agricultural wastes. AIP Conf. Proceed.,

Langmuir I., 1918. The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. J. Ameri. Chem. Soci., 40(9), 1361-1403.

Lei Y., Su H., Tian F., 2018. A Novel Nitrogen Enriched Hydrochar Adsorbents Derived from Salix Biomass for Cr (VI) Adsorption. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 1-9.

Nan Z., Shi Z., Yan B., Guo R., Hou W., 2008. A novel morphology of aragonite and an abnormal polymorph transformation from calcite to aragonite with PAM and CTAB as additives. J. Colloid. Interf. Sci., 317(1), 77-82.

Qian W.C., Luo X.P., Wang X., Guo M., Li B., 2018. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by modified bamboo hydrochar. Ecotoxic. Envi. Saf., 157, 300-306.

Saha P. Das, Dey A., Marik P., 2012. Batch removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions using wheat shell as adsorbent: Process optimization using response surface methodology. Desali. Wat. Treat., 39(1-3), 95-102.

Said A., Tekasakul S., Phoungthong K., 2020. Investigation of hydrochar derived from male oil palm flower: Characteristics and application for dye removal. Polish J. Envir. Stud., 29(1), 807–816.

Sdiri A., Higashi T., Jamoussi F., Bouaziz, S. 2012. Effects of impurities on the removal of heavy metals by natural limestones in aqueous systems. J. Envir.l Manag., 93(1), 245-253.

Shang J., Pi J., Zong M., Wang Y., Li W., Liao Q., 2016. Chromium removal using magnetic biochar derived from herb-residue. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 68, 289-294.

Sheth K.N., Soni V.M., 2005. Comparative study of removal of Cr(VI) with PAC, GAC and adsorbent prepared from tobacco roots. J. Envir. Sci. Engin., 47(3), 218-221.

Sika M.S., Liu F., Chen H., 2010. Optimization of key parameters for chromium (VI) removal from aqueous solutions using activated charcoal. J. Soil Sci. Envir. Manag., 1(3), 55-62.

Tizo M.S., et al., 2018. Efficiency of calcium carbonate from eggshells as an adsorbent for cadmium removal in aqueous solution. Susta. Envi. Res., 28(6), 326-332.

Ullah I., Nadeem R., Manzoor Q., 2013. Biosorption of chromium onto native and immobilized sugarcanebagasse waste biomass. Ecolo. Engin., 60, 99-107.

Vu X.H., Nguyen L.H., Van H.T., Nguyen D.V., Nguyen T.H., Nguyen Q.T., Ha L.T., 2019. Adsorption of chromium(VI) onto freshwater snail shell-derived biosorbent from aqueous solutions: Equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamics. J. Chem., (Iii).

Yao C., et al., 2012. Polypyrrole/palygorskite nanocomposite: A new chromate collector. Appl. Clay Sci., 67-68, 32-35.

Zbair M., et al., 2018. Hydrothermal Carbonization of Argan Nut Shell: Functional Mesoporous Carbon with Excellent Performance in the Adsorption of Bisphenol A and Diuron. Wast. Bioma. Valor., 11(4), 1565-1584.

Zhang Xiaonuo, Lin X., He Y., Chen Y., Zhou J., Luo X., 2018. Adsorption of phosphorus from slaughterhouse wastewater by carboxymethyl konjac glucomannan loaded with lanthanum. Inter. J. Biolog. Macromol., 119, 105-115.

Zhang Xin, et al., 2018. Removal and recovery of Cr(VI) from wastewater by maghemite nanoparticles. Water Res, 256(18), 1-10.

Zhao B., Zhang J., Yan W., Kang X., Cheng C., 2016. Removal of cadmium from aqueous solution using waste shells of golden apple snail. Desali, Wat. Treat., 3994, 23987-24003.

Zhou X., Liu Y., Zhou J., Guo J., Ren J., Zhou F., 2018. Efficient removal of lead from aqueous solution by urea-functionalized magnetic biochar: Preparation, characterization and mechanism study. J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Engin., 91, 457-467.

DOI: Display counter: Abstract : 180 views.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, ISSN: 0866-7187; 2615-9783

Contact address:;;

Index: Web of Science (ESCI); Scopus (accepted), GeoRef (American Geosciences Institute); NPI (Norway)Google ScholarScilit (Switzerland)Copernicus InternationalAsean Citation IndexCiteFactor

© Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST)