Impact of turbidity, and suspended solids on bacteria in the Red river, Vietnam
Keywords:Bacteria, Red river, Suspended solids, Turbidity.
This paper presented results on the impact of turbidity, and suspended solids on bacteria (Escherichia coli (EC) and total coliforms (TC)) in the water environment of the Red river,
Vietnam using observation data and statistical analyses by principal component analysis (PCA), performed by XLSTAT (v.2014) statistical software. Water samples were collected at six hydrological stations in both dry and wet seasons. In general, both TC and E. coli densities were higher than the acceptable limits for B2 column in QCVN 08:2008 at most of the 6 stations examined (except Hoa Binh station). Statistical analysis showed negative correlation between bacterial densities and suspended solids (SS) in the upstream of Red river while a positive correlation was observed for downstream stations. Similarly, positive correlations (0.071 – 0.978) between turbidity and bacterial densities at all monitoring stations were found, however, only the Vu Quang station result is statistically significant (p = 0.978; p < 0.0001). These correlations showed the impact of upstream reservoir impoundment on bacteria density whereas population/urban dominates the impact on bacteria density of the Red river. Results also revealed the principal mode of transportation for bacteria within a watershed, so that the risk to public health can be properly evaluated to satisfy local interest to improve water quality, and produce effective watershed management decisions.
Bacteria, Red river, Suspended solids, Turbidity.