Vespidae, climatic condition, distribution, social wasps, fauna, Vietnam.
: Distribution records of social wasps in Vietnam are summarized and their distribution patterns are discussed. A total of 76 species in 11 genera of social wasps are recognized in Vietnam. They are 11 species belonging to four genera of the subfamily Stenogastrinae, 51 species in four genera of the Polistinae and 14 species belonging to three genera of the Vespinae. Distribution records of social wasps in Vietnam are given according to the three climatic conditions (Northern, Southern and Mountainous areas), showing that the numbers of species are higher in the mountainous areas and tend to decrease from north to south. Vietnam has a rich social wasp fauna, consisting of three major components: the northern element, of which the center of divergence might be on the eastern slope of Himalaya; the Sundaland species, which are distributed in the southern part of Vietnam; and species widely distributed in the Indo-Malayan region.